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starting about 2.500,000,000 years ago, sedimentary rocks affected by higher amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere, appear red, as though rusted. Fossils include earliest fish, but of types very different from modern ones. signs of the "tentative presence" of plants on land.

Reef building sponges called stromatoporoids and corals suffered losses and stromatoporoids finally disappeared in the third extinction near the end of the Devonian.All plants were responsible for the transformation, but Archaeopteris was important because it made up 90 percent of the forests during the last 15 million years when these changes accelerated" ..."It was the first plant to produce an extensive root system, so had a profound impact on soil chemistry".The end-Frasnian extinction (the largest) about 375 million years ago.The about 365 million years ago during the Famennian.They said "the epithet carboniferous is of obvious application to this series".Henry Shaler Williams (1891) proposed Pennine System as the name for the Carboniferous.It mentions the following periods to indicate how long ago coal was formed: Carboniferous followed by 359,200,000 - 326,400,000 years ago Dinantian series or epoch from the Lower Carboniferous system in Europe 326,400,000 to 313,400,000 years ago Namurian stage in the regional stratigraphy of northwest Europe are found - Silicious Grit, providing stone for building and millstones - Shale - then lime-stone and toadstone alternately.The veins of metallic ores appeared in the limestone.It is suggested that analysis of sedimentary pyrite from the Belingwe sedimentary basin in Zimbabwe may provide evidence for bacterial reduction at this date.2,500,000,000 to 542,000,000 years ago The Proterozoic Eon: the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon.

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